Perkin and Kipping's Organic chemistry by W. H Perkin

By W. H Perkin

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Hydrogen, and oxygen between the sum of the above numbers If the substance consist of carbon, only, the difference and 100 must represent the quantity of oxygen; the percentage composition of the substance * is therefore, The approximate atomic weights H=l, 0=12, O=16, here and in other calculations. N=14 are used 22 COMPOSITION, PURIFICATION, C AND ANALYSIS 62-40 per cent. H 4-31 33-29 The percentage ,. (by difference). always obtained by difference, there being no satisfactory method by which this element may be directly estimated.

14. means of an india-rubber stopper, and heated by the vapour some constant boiling liquid f contained in the outer vessel as the air expands it escapes through the narrow tube (d), (c) which dips under the water in the vessel (e). As soon as the temperature of the bulb tube (ab) becomes constant that is of ; when bubbles of air cease to escape (from d) the tube is filled with water and inverted over the graduated (g) end of d ; the stopper (a) is now removed, and a small bottle to say, fig. 12) completely filled with a weighed quantity (about 0-05 gram) of the liquid dropped into the apparatus,!

29). The is allowed to cool, carefully shaken into distilled water, the solution acidified with nitric acid, filtered from mixture carbonaceous matter, and tested with silver nitrate. If the substance contained a halogen heatchlorine, for instance ing it with calcium oxide causes the formation of calcium chloride. When nitrogen is present the tests (a) and (b) for halogens not conclusive, as the precipitate may be only silver cyanide; under these circumstances, the precipitate is colare and ignited on a porcelain crucible lid, when decomposed leaving silver, whereas the haloid The residue is then covered with merely fused.

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