Introduction to Animal Physiology by Dr Ian Kay

By Dr Ian Kay

Advent to animal body structure offers scholars with a radical, easy-to-understand creation to the foundations of animal body structure, with examples selected to demonstrate physiological procedures from around the animal state. it truly is truly written

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16. Although the above description relates to striated muscle, much the same sort of process occurs in other types of muscle. Forexample,cardiacmusclecannot enter into the stateof maintained contraction knownas tetany because it has an extremely long refractory period of 250 ms. This time period is almost as long as it takes for cardiac muscle to contract and fully relax. Therefore, itis impossible for individual contractions to summate to give a sustained contraction. Remember that during the refractory period, a cell is unresponsive to further stimulation.

The physiological processes which are occurring at photoreceptors, and the way that neural information generated from them is dealt with by the nervous system, is far from fully understood. 7) which face in opposite directions and are used essentially to obtain directional information. The animal will tend to move to darker regions, thereby minimizingthe risk of attack by predators. 8). Each compound eye is made from many smaller optical units called ommatidia. The quality of the representation of the world varies depending onthenumber of ommatidia - the greaterthe number, the better the definition of the visual experience.

Therefore, itis impossible for individual contractions to summate to give a sustained contraction. Remember that during the refractory period, a cell is unresponsive to further stimulation. Obviously, if this were allowed to happen, then the heart would cease to function as a pump. Another difference is that in smooth muscle, Ca2+ entry from the extracellular fluidis important in initiating the contractile response, in contrast to the role of internally released Ca2+ seen in skeletal muscle. 3 Types of vertebrate skeletal mucle It is possible to distinguishtwo main typesof vertebrate skeletal muscle - fast (or twitch) fibers and slow (or phasic) fibers.

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