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As the beneﬁts of cooperation increase, so may the costs of not cooperating. Wholes may then become obligatory survival units, one consequence of which may be that a decrement in the performance of the whole might result in the demise of the parts. An example can be found in a longterm study by Jeon (1972, 1983). A strain of Amoeba proteus was initially infected with bacterial parasites that were resistant to the hosts’ digestive enzymes. After two hundred generations, or eighteen months, a mutualistic relationship had become established, and after ten years the symbionts had developed complete interdependence.
Here we can observe a wide range of cooperative relationships that can only be accounted for in bioeconomic, cost-beneﬁt terms. Kinship is largely irrelevant. Indeed, many types of symbioses—such as the Holistic Darwinism 25 estimated 20,000 species of lichen partnerships involving approximately 300 different genera of fungi and algae, or the rhizobia and similar bacteria that form root nodules with some 17,500 species in 600 genera of plants— reﬂect a plethora of independent inventions. In other words, many different species may discover and utilize the same functionally advantageous cooperative relationships.
Sperry was fond of using as an illustration the metaphor of a wheel rolling downhill—its rim, all of its spokes, indeed all of its atoms, are compelled to go along for the ride. We will use the term here in a slightly different sense. Downward causation in this context refers to the selective inﬂuences that have shaped the evolution of cooperative phenomena generally and complexity in particular. Why do selﬁsh genes cooperate in ways that produce teamwork, which, in turn, leads to interdependency?