Hepatitis E Virus by Youchun Wang (eds.)

By Youchun Wang (eds.)

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Pyst1 is a member of the ERK-specific MAPK phosphatase family that can mediate the dephosphorylation of ERK, which inactivates ERK [48]. By binding its D1 region in the N-terminus to the central connection region of Pyst1, ORF3 blocks its phosphorylation, which prolongs the activated status of ERK and allows the continuous operation of the MAPK pathway and, therefore, potentially facilitates host cell survival and viral proliferation. ORF3 has also been shown to activate MAPK–JNK of the anti-apoptosis signaling pathway.

2 25 The Host Proteins Involved in HEV Infection and Intercellular Transduction Interactions between ORF2 and extracellular matrix proteins were detected in host cells. It was reported that once heparan sulfate was removed from the cell surface by heparinase or sodium chlorate treatment, the binding of HEV VLP to the Huh-7 cell surface was significantly reduced. Syndecan-1 plays an important role in the ORF2 binding process because it is a ubiquitous proteoglycan on the cell [26]. However, the interaction between ORF2 and heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a nonspecific adsorption, and the identity of an HEV-specific receptor remains unknown.

Generally, ORF1 encodes the nonstructural proteins that are mainly responsible for virus replication. ORF2 protein is the capsid protein, which contains most of the neutralizing epitopes. ORF3 protein is a short protein, which may have multiple functions. Although substantial progress on studying the functions of HEV proteins has been made, knowledge about some functions of these proteins is still limited. Recently, the interaction between HEV proteins and hosts or host cells has been investigated in several laboratories, and several host proteins have been found to interact with HEV proteins.

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