By Broder J. Merkel, Britta Planer-Friedrich, Darrell K. Nordstrom
The second version of "Groundwater Geochemistry – a realistic advisor to modeling of common and infected aquatic structures" is still the excellent textual content ebook delivering novices and complicated modellers alike a minimal theoretical history and a powerful specialise in the sensible resolution of geochemical modeling with PHREEQC.
The re-creation covers the prospect to exploit PITZER equation and the CD tune suggestion in the new edition of PHREEQC. Examples for reactive shipping use PHREEQC?s 1d positive factors with multicomponent diffusion in addition to PHAST with the graphical person interface GoPhast on 2nd and 3d examples. imposing uncertainties of thermodynamically facts is addressed by way of this system Ljungskile. As within the 1st variation, designated descriptions on easy methods to clear up each one challenge step-by-step advisor the person from easy to an increasing number of complicated hydrogeochemical modelling.
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Extra info for Groundwater Geochemistry
Up to pH 5 the cation exchange capacity is constant, rising extremely at higher values. pH-dependent negative cation exchange capacity [meq/100g] Fig. 11 Schematic depiction of the pH-dependent sorption behaviors of iron hydroxide surfaces at accretion of the H+ and OH- ions (after Sparks 1986). permanent positive pH-dependent Fig. 12 Cation and Anion exchange behavior of minerals as a function of the pH (after Bohn et al. 1979); “negative” and “positive” relates to the charge of the surfaces, so that “negatives” are cation exchanger and “positives” anion exchanger.
In natural systems anions are exchanged very rarely, in contrast to cations, which exchange more readily Equilibrium reactions 25 forming a succession of decreasing intensity: Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Be2+ and Cs+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+. Generally, multivalent ions (Ca2+) are more strongly bound than monovalent ions (Na+), yet the selectivity decreases with increasing ionic strength (Stumm and Morgan, 1996). Large ions like Ra2+ or Cs+ as well as small ions like Li+ or Be2+ are merely exchanged to a lower extent.
2. Ion exchange The ability of solid substances to exchange cations or anions with cation or anions in aqueous solution is called ion-exchange capacity. In natural systems anions are exchanged very rarely, in contrast to cations, which exchange more readily Equilibrium reactions 25 forming a succession of decreasing intensity: Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Be2+ and Cs+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+. Generally, multivalent ions (Ca2+) are more strongly bound than monovalent ions (Na+), yet the selectivity decreases with increasing ionic strength (Stumm and Morgan, 1996).