Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the phases of their evolution by S. I. Malyshev (auth.), Professor O. W. Richards M.A.,

By S. I. Malyshev (auth.), Professor O. W. Richards M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Sir Boris Uvarov K.C.M.G., D.Sc., F.R.S. (eds.)

The overdue Professor S. I. Malyshev, who died from a cerebral haemorrhage on nine might 1967 on the age of eighty three within the teach whereas traveling to box paintings, was once one of many preferable ecu scholars of the Hymenoptera, particularly of the conduct of solitary bees, a topic on which he had released many papers given that 1908, typically in Russian. In 1935 he released a massive paper on a part of his paintings, and that i helped to edit the book, which used to be in English. many years in the past a few of my neighbors in California requested me if i couldn't convince him to accomplish his early paper on solitary bees, providing if essential to manage for a translation. whilst I wrote to Professor Malyshev making this recommendation he not had the overall healthiness to supply a brand new paintings, yet he despatched me a duplicate of his contemporary booklet at the evolution of the Hymenoptera which he notion should be worthy trans­ lating. Sir Boris Uvarov was once more than enough to translate for me the bankruptcy and part headings, and it appeared to either one of us lot of recent floor used to be lined in a hugely unique manner. the reason of the alterations in behaviour that should have taken position whilst the straightforward, plant-feeding observed­ flies built into hugely really expert parasites or into industrious, nutrition­ accumulating, social bugs equivalent to the ants, bees, and wasps can good be considered as one of many significant demanding situations to zoologists.

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The stem easily breaks off where it has been gnawed through, and the larva remains in the stump, which projects only for 1-5 cm above the surface of the soil. The larva, immured in this way, is well protected against harmful factors and lies in its winter quarters until the following spring, when it changes into a pupa, from which the adult emerges in the middle of May. The 'sawn-through' stems break off with the slightest touch or by the action of the wind just above the plug, and mingled in all directions, they give the field a very characteristic appearance (Znamenskii, 1926).

This resulted in conflicting views on the origin of the parasitic Hymenoptera. The uncertain state of affairs led Brues (1921) to assert that at the present time any opinion on how the first carnivorous Hymenoptera (the Orussidae or the Ichneumonidae, which Handlirsch also had in mind) became parasitic must be pure speculation. Unfortunately the solution of this fundamental problem has been impeded by the inadequacy of the definitions of the concepts used. This was stressed by Brues, in whose opinion the greatest difficulty lies in the interpretation which we place on the predatism and the parasitism exhibited by the Hymenoptera in a highly specialized form and in such great variety that no hard-and-fast line can be drawn between them (Brues, 1946).

This superfamily includes three families: the Syntexidae (one genus and one species from California), the Xiphydriidae (one or two cosmopolitan genera), and the Siricidae (with two subfamilies - the Siricinae and Tremicinae). To this list is sometimes added the family Orussidae, whose taxonomic position is, however, disputable. They have now been distinguished as an independent superfamily, the Orussoidea, containing only the one family (Richards, 1956). 24 GENESIS OF THE HYMENOPTERA We shall discuss them again later.

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