Functional Biochemistry in Health and Disease, 2nd Edition by Eric Newsholme, Anthony Leech

By Eric Newsholme, Anthony Leech

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The thermic effect of food expends energy. 4 A plot of resting metabolic rate against fat-free mass in men. The line is a regression line based on 38 data points. The data are from Elia (1992). The largest contributor to fat free mass, is muscle. Meal Meal 250 1000 is actually responsible for release of 90 kJ of heat (calculated on the basis that oxidation of one mole of glucose generates 30 moles ATP). • An obligatory component, which results from the energy cost of digestion, absorption and assimilation of the food.

In fact, ΔG is much more akin to temperature than energy. As indicated above, temperature determines in which direction heat will flow, ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PATHWAYS similarly ΔG determines in which direction a reaction will proceed. Application of DG to biochemical reactions It is the value of ΔG that determines the direction of a reaction or a biochemical pathway. If ΔG for a reaction is negative, the reaction can proceed in that direction. If it is zero or positive it cannot.

Since it was clear that phosphorylase could catalyse both chain extension and chain degradation of glycogen, it was considered, at that time, that the enzyme was involved in both synthesis and degradation of glycogen. It was only when an enzyme, glycogen synthase, was discovered, in 1957, that it was realised that phosphorylase did not catalyse the synthesis of glycogen in vivo. The discovery led to the identification of a specific pathway for glycogen synthesis, using uridine diphosphate glucose as the substrate for glycogen synthase.

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