By Job Kuijt, Bertel Hansen (deceased)
In the current quantity taxonomic remedies together with descriptions of and keys to the households and genera for the orders Santalales and Balanophorales are provided, the previous staff right here comprising 12 households with 162 genera and approximately 2100 species, and the latter with the one family members Balanophoraceae composed of sixteen genera and approximately forty two species. The contentious relations type of Santalales has been completely revised opposed to the history of earlier classifications in addition to to be had structural and molecular proof, and in addition the category of Balanophoraceae has been conscientiously updated.
Santalales are predominantly hemiparasites attached with both the branches or the roots of alternative eco-friendly land vegetation, while Balanophoraceae are holoparasites that shape terrestrial tubers connected to the roots of woody hosts. In either orders, parasitism has ended in substantial discounts of the vegetative and reproductive organs and designated descriptions are given at the initiation of ramal and terrestrial parasitism in Santalales and the haustorial connection and tissue continuity among host and parasite in either teams. The dramatic relief of the vegetative physique in Balanophoraceae, that can lack all vegetative organs quite often present in eco-friendly land vegetation, has promoted experiences within the box of developmental morphology. therefore, the amount not just presents an summary of the range of the plant teams handled therein, but in addition issues to the attention-grabbing organic peculiarities that experience developed in reference to their singular lifestyle.
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Extra info for Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Santalales, Balanophorales
Two unusual and unexplained cell types have been discovered in the haustoria of mistletoes and others. Graniferous tracheary elements of at least two types are known from the haustoria of several groups, including some mistletoes, Exocarpos (Fineran et al. 1978; Fineran 1979; Fineran and Bullock 1979), Opilia (Fineran 1985), Olax (Fineran et al. 1987), and Cansjera (Weber and Hildebrand 1978). Flange cells (an unusual, transfer-like cell type) have been described in both Korthalsella and Phoradendron (Fineran 1996, 1998; Fineran and Calvin 2000).
However, the several collapsed zones associated with them are not all necessarily related to attempted entries. If entry is affected the endophyte, as indicated earlier, may take very different courses of devel- opment. Direct contact with the vascular system of the host is usually secured, apparently only with the xylem. This may take the form of a partial encirclement of the latter’s stele. In mistletoes, the tip of radial haustorial structures is apparently stopped by the secondary xylem of the host, which continues to be added to, thus investing that portion of the endophyte.
Ninety-nine percent of the cellular host-parasite contact in this species consists of parenchyma tissue, and there is no lumen continuity between partners. In Santalum album, lumen to lumen continuity is probably also lacking entirely (Radomiljac et al. 1998). Nevertheless, a substantial intake of xylem N by the parasite occurs from several legume hosts, but little from the non N-fixing host Eucalyptus camaldulensis. An apoplastic pathway of water uptake is therefore indicated (as also shown for the mistletoe Korthalsella by Coetzee and Fineran 1987).