By Brian K. Hall
Some time past, fish fins developed into the limbs of land vertebrates and tetrapods. in this transition, a few components of the fin have been carried over whereas new positive aspects constructed. Lizard limbs, chicken wings, and human legs and arms are hence all evolutionary changes of the unique tetrapod limb.
A complete examine the present kingdom of analysis on fin and limb evolution and improvement, this quantity addresses quite a lot of subjects—including progress, constitution, upkeep, functionality, and regeneration. Divided into sections on evolution, improvement, and differences, the booklet starts off with a old creation to the learn of fins and limbs and is going directly to reflect on the evolution of limbs into wings in addition to variations linked to really good modes of lifestyles, reminiscent of digging and burrowing. Fins into Limbs additionally discusses events whilst evolution appears to be like to were reversed—in whales, for instance, whose entrance limbs turned flippers once they reverted to the water—as good as occasions during which limbs are misplaced, similar to in snakes.
With contributions from world-renowned researchers, Fins into Limbs may be a font for additional investigations within the altering box of evolutionary developmental biology.
Read or Download Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and Transformation PDF
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Extra resources for Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and Transformation
Remains (ﬁg. 9G–I) include fragmentary girdle elements with an array of generalized plesiomorphic features. The clavicle is broad and triangular, with smoothly curved margins, and much more expanded anteriorly than posteriorly (more so than in Acanthostega). An interclavicle is poorly preserved but shows the broad dimensions characteristic of early, limbed tetrapods. Shallow areas overlapped in life by the clavicular plates indicate that the clavicles were separated only narrowly at the ventral midline.
Distally, the nascent pectoral autopod of Panderichthys includes no direct clue of digit origin: simply an anteroposteriorly broad ulnaric plate and a slender, but primitively elongate, intermedium. From Acanthostega onward, limbs with an autopod including digits are present, and these digits occur ﬁrst at pectoral and pelvic levels. As noted elsewhere (Coates et al. 2002), absence of pelvic ﬁn data in Panderichthys leaves a morphological gulf between conditions in Eusthenopteron and Acanthostega, not least because hindlimbs in the earliest limbed tetrapods are generally more derived than their pectoral counterparts (Coates et al.
J. Godfrey 1989). These tetrapods lie close to the crown-tetrapod split and have at times been proposed as members of the latter (Panchen and Smithson 1988), although more recent studies place them as derived members of the tetrapod stem. The massive, rhomboidal interclavicle (ﬁg. 12B, C) bears a triangular posterior process and a broad, rectangular anterior. The clavicles have anteriorly expanded ventral plates and short, robust ascending processes. Each rodlike cleithrum retains a narrow postbranchial lamina, but they are otherwise rather advanced with an anteroposteriorly expanded, slightly fore-turned dorsal extremity.