By Massimo Pigliucci
Admired evolutionary biologists and philosophers of technological know-how survey fresh paintings that expands the center theoretical framework underlying the organic sciences.
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Additional info for Evolution - the Extended Synthesis
When we described the microevolutionary approach to evaluating likelihoods, the ancestral states were taken as being observed such that the test asked whether, given an input of state 0 for the branch in question (plus the model of change), the likelihood that the output state would be 1 is significantly higher under the adaptive than under the alternative hypothesis. However, it should be possible to use a microevolutionary model but to take only the tip states as known. In this case one would calculate the likelihood of obtaining those states under the adaptive and alternative models by summing across all possible sets of ancestral states (appropriately weighted by their likelihood of occurring under the chosen model of evolution).
2. The approach requires that we commit to a particular tree and to a particular reconstruction of the characters and selective regimes on that tree. We know that any inference of a phylogeny or of ancestral states, given a phylogeny, is subject to error. However, the parsimony approach does not take into account such uncertainty, and it does not distinguish between cases in which we are very confident of our historical inferences versus those in which we are unsure. 3. The parsimony approach focuses exclusively on character origin.
Amundson discusses the divergent explanatory presuppositions that seem to underlie the two explanatory modes, and he attempts to determine whether developmental biology can be assimilated into studies of adaptation via a concept such as genetic constraint defined in quantitative-genetic terms, whether it will remain peripheral to those studies, or whether some other outcome is possible. In Chapter 11, Peter Godfrey-Smith argues that there are three forms of adaptationism found within the community of evolutionary biologists.