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Pigments known as theaflavins and thearubigins. The structure of one of them is shown in Fig. 9. Flavonols, like anthocyanidins, exist almost exclusively as glycosides. Three common flavonols are kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin, resembling pelargonidin, cyanidin, and delphinidin, respectively, in the hydroxylation pattern of the B ring. Flavonol glycosides impart weak yellow hues to apples, apricots, cherries, cranberries, grapes, onions, plums, potatoes, strawberries, tea, tomatoes, and other commodities.
R. ] C. Carotenoids Many of the yellow, orange, and red colors of plants and animals are due to carotenoids, pigments similar to those of carrots. The basic structure of carotenoids is a chain of eight isoprenoid units. , vitamin A) are also considered carotenoids. Most of the structural differences among carotenoids exist at the ends of the chain. Some carotenoids are hydrocarbons and are known as carotenes, while others contain oxygen and are called xanthophylls. The structures of several carotenoids, along with the foods or tissues in which they are present, are shown in Table I.
Both the oxygenation and oxidation processes are reversible. Severe oxidative deterioration may result in the formation of green pigments (sulfmyoglobin, cholemyoglobin). When meat is cooked, the protein moiety (globin) of myoglobin is denatured and the heme is converted chiefly to nicotinamide hemichrome, the entire pigment acquiring a brown hue. These changes are irreversible. Heated meat is also subject to the browning reactions discussed in Section III. A simplified scheme of the red-pigment changes in fresh and heated meat is shown in Fig.