By Patrik Nosil
The beginning of organic range, through the formation of recent species, should be inextricably associated with model to the ecological surroundings. in particular, ecological strategies are imperative to the formation of recent species whilst boundaries to gene movement (reproductive isolation) evolve among populations because of ecologically-based divergent typical choice. This strategy of 'ecological speciation' has obvious a wide physique of rather centred learn within the final 10-15 years, and a overview and synthesis of the theoretical and empirical literature is now timely.
The booklet starts off by way of clarifying what ecological speciation is, its choices, and the predictions that may be used to check for it. It then experiences the 3 elements of ecological speciation and discusses the geography and genomic foundation of the method. a last bankruptcy highlights destiny examine instructions, describing the techniques and experiments that may be used to behavior that destiny paintings. The ecological and genetic literature is built-in through the textual content with the objective of laying off new perception into the speciation technique, rather while the empirical information is then extra built-in with thought.
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Extra resources for Ecological Speciation
Gambusia ﬁshes References (Rundle et al. 2000, Taylor and McPhail 2000, Boughman et al. 2005) (McKinnon et al. 4. Cont. Study system 6. Neochlamisus leaf beetles 7. Littorina intertidal snails 8. Asellus aquaticus freshwater isopods 9. Eumeces skinks 10. Enallagma damselﬂies 1. 2. 3. Divergent forms Multiple origins Gene ﬂow/lineage sorting SI Genetic tested basis1 References Willow and maple host forms Upper- versus lower-shore ecotypes mtDNA, AFLPs mtDNA, msats, allozymes, AFLPs GFP, A Y NT (Funk 1998, Egan et al.
The importance of this persistence view for speciation depends on the rate at which reproductive isolation evolves. The more slowly reproductive isolation evolves, the more important for speciation are the mechanisms that facilitate long-term persistence of populations. Under the second view, phylogenetic niche conservatism facilitates speciation by causing populations to become and remain geographically isolated (Wiens 2004). Geographical isolation occurs because populations have limited ecological tolerances such that they cannot occur in regions that would connect the populations via gene ﬂow (Ramsey et al.
Gasterosteus sticklebacks Limnetic and benthic freshwater forms Body size Foraging niche, competition Experiment Experiment 2. Gasterosteus sticklebacks 3. Gambusia ﬁshes Freshwater and marine forms Predator and predator-free forms Upper- and lowershore ecotypes Body size Foraging niche Observational Manipulative experiment Experiment 4. Littorina intertidal snails Body shape Predation regime Observational (predators present versus absent) Body/shell size Crab predation Experiment Experiment 5.