By Esther Lubzens, Joan Cerda, Melody Clark
Many organisms have developed the facility to go into into and revive from a dormant kingdom. they could live to tell the tale for lengthy sessions during this nation (often even months to years), but can turn into responsive back inside of mins or hours. this is, yet no longer unavoidably, linked to desiccation. holding one’s physique and reviving it in destiny generations is a dream of mankind. thus far, notwithstanding, we have now did not learn the way cells, tissues or complete organisms may be made dormant or be successfully revived at ambient temperatures. during this e-book stories on organisms, starting from aquatic cyanobacteria that produce akinetes to hibernating mammals, are provided, and show universal but additionally divergent physiological and molecular pathways for surviving in a dormant shape or for tolerating harsh environments. trying to study the services linked to dormancy and the way they're regulated is likely one of the nice destiny demanding situations. Its relevance to the renovation of cells and tissues is among the key issues of this book.
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Additional info for Dormancy and Resistance in Harsh Environments
Nevertheless, understanding of mechanisms that trigger akinete formation via the conversion of a vegetative cell within a filament into a resting cell was hindered until recently. Identification of environmental triggers that induce akinete formation, the availability of mutants that form akinetes under well-defined conditions and above all, development of advanced genomic tools that have been implemented to study the regulation and differentiation of cyanobacteria, have allowed progress in understanding the akinete differentiation process.
Upon germination, many of these mRNAs are rapidly degraded (Brengues et al. 2002; Joseph-Strauss et al. 2007). 4 Trehalose Breakdown Dormant spores contain high amounts of the stress metabolite trehalose. Trehalose serves as a storage carbohydrate and has a protective role during dormancy. Likely, trehalose functions as a carbon source for energy during the dormant stage (Barton et al. 1982). A drop in adenosine 50 -triphosphate (ATP) and the resulting drop in intracellular pH are suggested to trigger the slow mobilisation of trehalose in dormant spores (Thevelein et al.
1991). Extracellular polysaccharides of desiccation-resistant cyanobacteria in combination with trehalose or sucrose have been shown to stabilize membrane structure (Hill et al. 1997), which could account for an alternative mechanism of desiccation resistance for these sugars, in addition to their role as “chemical chaperones” within the cytoplasm (Crowe et al. 1998). A smaller but significant induction of sucrose by desiccation stress was found in Anabaena 7120, although very little trehalose accumulation was observed (Higo et al.