Canonical Perturbation Theories: Degenerate Systems and by Sylvio Ferraz-Mello

By Sylvio Ferraz-Mello

The e-book is written more often than not to complicated graduate and post-graduate scholars following classes in Perturbation thought and Celestial Mechanics. it's also meant to function a advisor in examine paintings and is written in a really specific manner: all perturbation theories are given with information permitting its speedy program to genuine difficulties. moreover, they're through examples displaying all steps in their program. The booklet isn't meant to discover the math of Hamiltonian structures, yet should be important to mathematicians in loads of situations as a reference at the functional software of the theories. within the related approach, it can be a resource e-book at the difficulties of degeneracy and small divisors, which have an effect on using perturbation theories to boot in Celestial Mechanics as in Physics.

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Extra resources for Canonical Perturbation Theories: Degenerate Systems and Resonance

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35) is simply N N pj (q1 , J) dqj = p1 (q1 , J) dq1 + J q . 37) (k ≥ 1). 36) comes from the integration of an exact differential form in dqj and that we may add to the generating function any arbitrary function of J. The one-degree-of-freedom canonical transformation (q1 , p1 ) → (w1 , J1 ) is often given in the inverted form q1 = Q1 (w1 , J) p1 = P1 (w1 , J). cls ∂Q1 dw1 . 4 Separable Multiperiodic Systems 41 It is worth emphasizing that the substitution q1 = Q1 (w1 , J) may be done after the differentiation and that it is no longer possible to permute the differentiation with respect to Jk and the integration.

However, they are not completely degenerate, except in some particular cases such as Keplerian motion and the harmonic oscillator (Bertrand’s theorem). In these cases, besides νφ − νθ = 0, we also have νθ − νr = 0. For other laws of force, a second commensurability relation may only occur for given initial conditions (accidental degeneracy or resonance). 85) ∂Ji ∂Jj which guarantees the reversibility of the transformation from actions to frequencies. This definition is more restrictive than Schwarzschild’s.

48) = βi (i = 1, · · · , N − 1), with β1 = E. If we assume that ∂fi /∂pi = 0 for all i = 1, · · · , N , these equations can be solved to give dSi = Gi (qi , βi+1 , βi ) d qi dSN = GN (qN , βN ). 1 Example: Central Motions The classical example of a separable system of this kind is the motion of a particle in a central force field. cls date/time: 20-Oct-2006/9:21 44 2 Angle–Action Variables. 51) + mU (r). 54) β3 . 2 Angle–Action Variables of Central Motions Let us calculate the angle–action variables of the central motions, starting with Jφ .

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