By Kara Rogers
Even if its ubiquity within the human physique could make it look unremarkable, easily positioned, blood makes existence attainable. It nourishes cells through the physique and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs. with no it, the physique will be not able to struggle ailment and an infection or functionality in any respect. Readers are invited to persist with the process this amazing fluid because it circulates in the course of the physique and find out about its part components. particular diagrams complement the textual content and make allowance readers a glimpse into the anatomy and life-sustaining houses of human blood.
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Additional info for Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body)
By contrast, the antibodies produced by B cells are not confined to recognizing antigens on cell membranes. They can bind to soluble antigens in the blood or extravascular fluids. T cells typically recognize antigens of infectious organisms that must penetrate cells in order to multiply, such as viruses. During their intracellular life cycle, viruses produce antigens that appear on the cell membrane. Two classes of T cells can be involved in the response to those cell-associated viral antigens: cytotoxic T cells, which destroy the cells by a lytic mechanism, and helper T cells, which assist B cells to produce antibodies against the microbial antigens.
47 7 Blood: Physiology and Circulation 7 Lymphocytes Lymphocytes constitute about 28–42 percent of the white cells of the blood, and they are part of the immune response to foreign substances in the body. Most lymphocytes are small, only slightly larger than red blood cells, with a nucleus that occupies most of the cell. Some are larger and have more abundant cytoplasm that contains a few granules. Lymphocytes are sluggishly motile, and their paths of migration outside of the bloodstream are different from those of granulocytes and monocytes.
The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is so great that at the oxygen pressure in the lungs about 95 percent of the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen. As the oxygen tension falls, as it does in the tissues, oxygen dissociates from hemoglobin and is available to move by diffusion through the red cell membrane and the plasma to sites where it is used. The proportion of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen is not directly proportional to the oxygen pressure. As the oxygen pressure declines, hemoglobin gives up its oxygen with disproportionate rapidity, so that the major fraction of the oxygen can be released with a relatively small drop in oxygen tension.