Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms by Lauralee Sherwood

By Lauralee Sherwood

Stay alongside of ultra-modern swift advances within the organic sciences with ANIMAL body structure: FROM GENES TO ORGANISMS 2E with CourseMate! With assurance of animal species that would be suitable on your animal-related occupation, this biology textual content will give you the instruments you want to be triumphant. packing containers stumbled on during the textual content resembling Molecular Biology and Genomics, past the fundamentals, demanding situations and Controversies, Unanswered Questions, and a better examine version provide you with examples of state-of-the-art study and assist you see how what you're studying applies to the genuine global. money Your realizing questions after each one significant part assist you evaluation the most rules as you learn. each one bankruptcy then ends with a bankruptcy precis, a suite of assessment, Synthesize, and research questions, and an inventory of advised Readings for additional learn.

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Glands are epithelial tissue derivatives that are specialized for secretion. Secretion is the release from a cell, in response to appropriate stimulation, of specific products that have in large part been synthesized by the cell. Glands are formed during embryonic development by pockets of epithelial tissue that dip inward from the surface. There are two categories of glands: exocrine and endocrine. If during development the connecting cells between the epithelial surface cells and the secretory gland cells within the depths of the invagination remain intact as a duct between the gland and the surface, an exocrine gland is formed.

DMS in turn is a breakdown product of an osmolyte (a molecule used to regulate cell water content; see Chapter 13) in marine phytoplankton (single-cell algae such as diatoms that are Earth’s most common photosynthesizers). The hypothesis is that, as Earth’s climate enters any warming trend, plankton growth increases and so, therefore, does DMS production. In turn, more clouds form that, by blocking sunlight, oppose the heating trend. Thus, the temperature of the planet’s atmosphere is prevented from extreme changes: Increasing atmospheric temperature → more DMS release from phytoplankton → more clouds form → less sunlight reaches Earth → atmospheric cooling If this is correct, would it be fair to think of Earth itself as a giant living organism (called Gaia)?

This term refers to consistency of function achieved by changing one physiological variable to counteract a change in another. The term was first used for blue crabs, which suffer a decrease in internal salt composition when they leave the ocean and enter a lower-salinity environment (an estuary). Researchers have found that reduced salt-ion levels inhibit oxygen binding by hemocyanin (Chapter 9), a large biomolecule (a protein similar to hemoglobin in your red blood cells), which transports oxygen in the crabs’ circulatory fluid.

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